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How to use Has/have/had

- Saturday, 13 April 2013 No Comments
This is very important to learn where and how to use these  verbs .

How Use has/have/had in the sentences that are given below 

We use these verbs in making the perfect tense (Have, has, had)

  •  “ I” “ you” “ we” or third person plural always come with “have” 
  • and third person singular come with “ has”
  • In the past tense (first, second, and third person ) in both number singular and plural come with had.

Some wrong expressions with present perfect

We often make a very  common mistakes  in our sentence, that  we use past tense expression in present perfect tense. Never mix following past  expressions in your present perfect sentence sentence . some past tense expressions are
  • Yesterday, 
  • last evening/night/week / month/
  • little while ago/moment/minute ago/day/ month/ago

Wrong expressions
Right expressions
He has come yesterday.
He came yesterday.
I have done this  last year.
I did this last year.
He has come a few minute ago.
He came few minute ago.
I have met him last summer.
I met him last winter.

“Just now” with present Perfect
We can use has/have/had with "just now"

  • I have come just now.
  • She has given me this book just now.

When the work started in the past and continue to the present:
to make these kind of sentence we use this formation: (Present perfect + adverbial /prepositional phrase)
these adverbial prepositional phrase are as following
  • Yet
  • just
  • since 
  • for
  • never 
  • often today
  • recently
  • so 
  • far
  • until
  • now up to the present
  • this day, week, moment month etc
  • follow this formation to use above words..
Subject+ has/have +past participle + adverbial +prepositional phrase
  • We have not meet him since last year.
  • She has lived in Canada for many years.
  • She has not yet come.
  • I have recently built a new website.
Some adverbs always follows present perfect tense only, never follow simple past tens-
 like

  • Already 
  • yet 
  • since 
  • till now 
  • so far like … he has already come here. Never use this (he has already came here)

Causative verbs  -- When the subject of your sentence is making somebody else  to get the work done , there we use this formation.....

Subject+ has/ have /had  + object + past participial

  • I had her punished for this deed .
  • He has a website built.
  • I had my application corrected.
We can also use "get" or "got" in the place of has/have/ had...Like
  • I got him punished
  • I got my car repaired.
  • He gets his car repair every month.
  • I am getting my website built.

Past and distant past tense
When we want to say that  one task started in the past and the other one happened in the distant past:
See how to  make this kind of sentence.
 first task is written in perfect tense and the last is written in simple past tense and to joint these two sentences we use conjunction –
like... When, before, after
  • like - She has gone before I reached at her home.
first action – she has gone
Second Action  - I reached
So first action always come with perfect tense and the second with simple past tense.

Example
  • The patient had died before the doctor reached.
  • I had left the party before they join.
  • I had ignore the proposal before you recommended.

Formation of compulsion /necessity /obligation sentences

Subject + has/have/had got +infinitive

Example
  • I have to obey him.
  • I have to borrow money.
  • My father had to borrow money for me.
  • You will have to follow me.
To make negative:

 Subject + has /have / had +infinitive
  • I have not to obey him.
  • I have not to borrow money.
 Has, have, had to show possession:
  • I have pen.
  • He has book.
  • They have lots of money.
  • We have property.
To show relation:
  • A table has four legs.
  • I have three sisters.
  • A cow has two horns.
  • These sentence also give expression of (take /give/ enjoy/experience)like
  • I have had my dinner.
  • She had her bath early in d morning.
  • We had a good time.
Negative Sentence with "had" "have" "has":

Sub+had/have/has +no/ not any+ noun
  • I have no money
  • He has no money.
  • I have not any money.
  • He has not any money.
  • Never use (no any)
  • Subjected/does/did not have + noun
  • I don’t have any money
  • he doesn’t have any money
  • he did not have any money
Note ..Do not/ did not always come with only "have" never use "had" or "has".

Interrogatives with has /have/ had:
  • Have you a book.
  • Has he a house?
  • Had they have time?
  • We can also make these with do/does like
  • Do you have a book?
  • Does he have a big house?
Verbs that shows, work is still undone that we hope for

like- Supposed, expect, hope, think, wish, want intend Past perfect + infinitive
  • I had expected to find him here .
  • I had hoped to get passed this year.
We can also use perfect infinitive to make these sentence in place of simple infinitive- like
  • I had expected to have found him here.
  • I had hoped to have received your call.
  • I had wished to have bought a new car.
Have /had/had
in the repetitive use of have, had and had: the first had is an auxiliary verb and the second is finite verb like
  • I have had my breakfast.
  • She had had her breakfast early in the morning.
  • He will have had her bath by now.
“Had” is also used to express a wish or desire- like
  • Had I been a princess.
  • Had I seen your performance.
  • Had he won this game?
Has/have been + noun / noun with preposition:
When a work started in the past and have finished or not continuing to the present .
  • She has been a good dancer.
  • He has been my teacher.
  • I have been to England.

Verb "To be" and its Agreement

- Thursday, 11 April 2013 No Comments
 How to use  “To be” verbs (is , are ,am)
  • "Is" – it is a singular verb and comes with singular third person.  Like - ( he is a god student),
  •  "Am" -  come with first person singular 
  •  "Are" -  with third person plural
To be verbs comes with compliment / predicate - like.
Subject +verb “to be” + compliment


  • He is gentleman.
  • He is a sportsman .
  • This house is mine.
  • The weather is fine.
Sub+ verb to be + infinitive
Sub +is/are/am/was/were/are+ infinitive


  • She is to come today.
  • They are to attend the party today.
  • They were to play match here.
  • You are to meet me tomorrow.
  • I am to leave tomorrow.
It+ is/was/ infinitive / adjective / gerund

  • It is easy to say him clearly.
  • It is to happen.
  • It is foolish to waste time like this.
  • It is god that you told me earlier.

Verb Definition

- No Comments
Verb Definitions  -  A verb is a word used to say something about person , place or thing.
Verbs are mostly divided in three parts

Transitive verbs – A verb is transitive if the action does not stop with the agent but passes the agent to something else, and verb that is incomplete without direct object.
as in the following example
Incomplete – Baby broke.
complete - baby broke the glass.

Intransitive verb – A verb is intransitive when the action stops with the agent and does not pass from the agent to anything else, on the other hand it cannot take a direct object, intransitive verbs doesn't ‘t need  any object  like
I sleep .. Sleep is a complete sense in itself so it doesn't need any object it is called intransitive verbs.

Confusing Adjectives

- Wednesday, 10 April 2013 No Comments
Confusing Adjectives & exercise
Some adjectives are confusing they look same but different in meaning like

later and latter,

  • Later - hear later is a comparative degree of late (She came later than him).
  • Latter -   latter is just opposite of former (john and Paul they both are my friends but the former is very closed to me than the latter)

  • Former (First) - Former is used for the first person when we talk about the two people.
  • Latter (last) When we talking about three or more than three people or thing then we use first and Last
  • ForemostIn matter of counting we use first , in matter of most important we use foremost like he is the first man to reach there .

  • Farther -  about distance (Bombay is farther to Delhi than Pune)
  • Further -  about extra (there is lot further to say)

  • Elder – older than you  (She is my elder sister)
  • Eldest – older than all ( our eldest sister lives in Bombay)

  • Some - we use it in affirmative Sentence. (She wants to spend some more time with her mother)
  • Any – we use it in negative and affirmative sentence. (She doesn’t has any friend with her)


  • Little –  (there is a little hope of his reaching at time)
  • A little –  (I have little money to spend )
  • The little – ( make the best use of the little money you have )

  • Either – one from two (she was asking about to take either side)
  • Neither – no one from two – (Neither road is safe in the night)

  • Due to – due to means Caused by (he has failed this year due to negligence in study)
  • Owing to – owing to also tell about the cause but only as prepositional phrase

Exercise

Correct the following underline words ….

  1. Later /latter …..He said he will be there
  2. latter/later…. proposal was accepted by the whole class.
  3. John and Mathew both are good dancer but the former is highly interested in dance than latter.( former ,latter )
  4. The man who came former/last could not get the seat.
  5. I am going to a place that is farther/ further from here.
  6. HE has no time for further/farther argument.
  7. Her friends are older/ eldest than her.
  8. My eldest/foremost brother is coming today.
  9. The poor don’t have any/some money to spend on luxury
  10. Can yo land him some/any money.
  11. He said that he doesn’t have any/some time for you.
  12. Doctor said there is a little/the little hope of his recovery.
  13. There is a little/little milk for tea.
  14. Use the little/a little money you have in beneficial task.
  15. Either/neither of two candidate s can be selected.
  16. Neither/either r of two candidates is fit for this job.
  17. He took this decision due to/owing to some domestic reason.
  18. Owing to/ due to some problems he couldn’t reach at the time.

Solved Exercise

  1. Later He said he will be there
  2. latter proposal was accepted by the whole class.
  3. John and Mathew both are good dancer but the former is highly interested in dance  than latter.
  4. The man who came last could not get the seat.
  5. I am going to a place that is farther from here.
  6. HE has no time for further argument.
  7. Her friends are older than her.
  8. My eldest/ elder brother is coming today.
  9. The poor don’t have any money to spend on luxury
  10. Can you land him some money.
  11. He said that he doesn’t have any time for you.
  12. Doctor said there is a little hope of his recovery.
  13. There is a little milk for tea.
  14. Use the little money you have in beneficial task.
  15. Either of two candidate s can be selected.
  16. Neither of two candidates is fit for this job.
  17. He took this decision due to some domestic reason.
  18. Owing to some problems he couldn’t reach at the time.




Rules & Exercise Of Superlative Degree

- Monday, 8 April 2013 No Comments


The + superlative
Superlative degree always followed by article “the”
He is the best.
She is the best dancer.
He is the best in all of us.

But if we are using possessive adjective before the superlative (possessive adjective  case is never followed by article "the" like
He is my best student.
She is my best friend
I am their dearest one.

Superlatives always come for compare a three or more than tree person or things
he is the best of the three friends.
This was the best performance.
This is the cheapest in all.

Superlative with  Of/in
we use of/in to compare tree or more then tree in superlative .
They are the richest of all people here
this is the cheapest of all books
this is the best scenery in this zone.

Rules & exercise of comparative Degree

- No Comments
Comparative Degree
•    Comparative is always used for compare between two things or person - like

We are better than them.
John is taller than Paul.
She is more beautiful than her.
Except some exceptions “than” is always used for to compare two things like
She is taller than her.
We are happier than them.
Sneha  is more beautiful than Somya.

•    These Latin origin adjective is called comparative adjectives so these adjective never come with other comparative degree like more superior, more inferior, less inferior, more preferable these all expression are wrong and all this Latin adjectives come with “to” in the place of “than” like
She is junior to me.
This glass is superior to that glass.
His turn comes prior to her
She is senior to her.

•    Double comparative – double comparative are always considered wrong  in  sentence like
More cleverer, more better, more stronger less braver..
He is braver (not he is more braver)

    When we compare tow  qualities of one people or thing than we don’t ues the “er” comparative degree ,we add “more “or   “less” in the place of “ er” to make comparative of that.
  • He is more intelligent than good looking.
  • He is more good than wise.
If we compare two people or thins, then it should be very clear and perfect comparison - like -
 If we say my dog is better than my friend...This is wrong formation or comparison we should use.
  • My dog is better than my friend’s.
  • The climate of Bangalore is better than Delhi (better than that of deli)

Proper Comparison  -
If we are comparing a person to his group and we are using than we should add “any other”  “all other” rafter the use “than” like
  • This book is better than any other book in this shop.
  • An elephant is stronger than all animals in the wood.
  • She respects him more than anyone in her home.
Note – “Other” with Noun and “else” with pronoun. Like
Any other man, another advocate,( she study harder than any other girl in the class)
anyone else, everybody else.(he was in time while everyone else was late)

Fewer / less
To compare a number of the things  use “fewer” or to compare a quantity of things we use “less”
“fewer always follow countable plural noun and “ less” is always followed by uncountable singular noun
Like
  • I have fewer books than magazines
  • she has fewer cups than glasses.
  • He bought fewer shirts than tea shirts.
  • She bought less gold than silver
  • I offered less milk than tea.
We can use “more” for number or quality both. Like
  • there are more cows than goats.
  • There is more milk than tea.
In some sentence we use comparative degree in two parts, in this kind of sentence we should use balanced comparative degree like
the higher a man rise, the stronger he becomes.

We can also Wright this sentence like
  • the patience is getting weaker and weaker
  • the price of gold is getting higher and higher.
  • To talk to him is getting harder and harder.
  • To emphasis a comparative we can use Much/far/by far/still/rather/all the …like
  • that dress is much prettier that that
  • this is far better than that
  • she is still better.
  • The talking was rather cheaper.
  • That is all the better
  • She said this is all the worse.

 Exercise -
correct the following sentence

  1. No one can do this work in this less shorter time
  2. Cant you give me your more better work?
  3. This house is much more superior to the other one.
  4. Her turn comes priors to yours.
  5. Her performance was superior than his.
  6. The dogs of Haryana are better than Punjab.
  7. My office is nearer than there.
  8. She is stronger and cleverer.
  9. She is better in dance than any student in the class.
  10. U can take this medicine with few milk.
  11. Will u have a fewer sugar in your tea.
  12. The harder a man labours, the best returns he gets.
  13. This road goes longer and longest from here..
 Solved Exercise

  1. No one can do this work in this shorter time
  2. Cant you give me your better work?
  3. This house is much superior to the other one.
  4. Her turn comes prior to yours.
  5. Her performance was superior to his.
  6. The dogs of Haryana are better than those of Punjab.
  7. My office is nearer than theirs.
  8. She is stronger than cleverer.
  9. She is better in dance than any other student in the class.
  10. U can take this medicine with less milk.
  11. Will u have a less sugar in your tea?
  12. The harder a man labours, the better returns he gets.
  13. This road goes longer and longer from here.

Rules & Exercise Of Positive Degree

- Sunday, 7 April 2013 1 Comment


We use adjectives to compare one thing with another in three steps
 (1) positive, (2) Comparative, (3) Superlative

Positive degree –


Rules for How to and where to use positive degree-

its describe a simple quality of noun..

Comparison of similarities - adjective as + adjective + as …like
If we are talking about tow people or we say that John is intelligent, Paul is intelligent .with use of adjective as+adj.+as we will say – John is as intelligent as Paul.
  • The Ramayana is as holly book as the bible.
  • A tiger is as dangerous lion.
  • She is looking as beautiful as her mother.
  • My son is as tall as his father.

Not as +adjective +as -   negative comparison is used when w tell about the dissimilarities of tow things , people or their qualities. like
She is not as beautiful as her mother.

Also we can say with “not so" - like (she is not so beautiful as her mother)
my son is not as tall as his father. (My son is not so tall as his father)
To emphasis Inequality we use "quite" just before so like,
She is not quite so beautiful as her mother.
my son is not quite so tall as his father.

Concealed Comparison.
Some time we don’t coma pair things in direct way but in indirect way  - like
not all that + Adjective
She is not all that  a good dancer
(she is not as god dancer as she is believed)
Its price is not all that high.
He is not all that good man
We can also compare two things in positive degree with following two steps …
With Gerund ( writing is as easy as swimming)
Walking is as difficult as running.
With Infinitive
It is not as easy to say as we think.
it is as difficult to walk as run.
First infinitive will come with to and other  without to
Positive degree is also used with some following words like
Had better, had rather, had sooner
I had   rather walk then run.
I had better work than sit idle
I had better sit there than stand here.


Positive Degree
 Correct the following sentence

  1. She is as taller as her mom.
  2. This dress is very pretty as the other one.
  3. I was not so tired than my brother.
  4. She is not very so laborious as your aunty.
  5. You are not highly so educated as your friends.
  6. They are not that all poor.
  7. His choice was not at all so great.
  8. It is as difficult to Wright as listening.
  9. Public speaking requires as much confidences to singing.
  10. They had better paid the fee. 

    Solved Exercise 

    1. She is as tall as her mom.
    2. This dress is as very pretty as the other one.
    3. I was not so tired as my brother
    4. She is not quit so laborious as your aunty.
    5. You are not highly quit so educated as your friends.
    6. They are not all that poor.
    7. His choice was not all that so great.
    8. It is as difficult to Wright as to listen.
    9. Public speaking requires as much confidences to singing.
    10. they had better pay the fee.