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Direct to indirect by changing in the Tense

By Learn English - Saturday, 7 September 2013 No Comments

Rules:

Change in reporting verb – there will be no change in the tense of reporting verb, but yes we can change in verb accordingly, like... "say" into "said" or "tell" into "told"

Change in to reported verb if reported verb are in present or future tense than there will be no change in tense but can change according to subject or verb like "am" in "is" or "are", “do” “has”  into “does” "have" .

Some solved example of changes in tense 

  • Direct – He says, “My father is not feeling well today.”
  • Indirect – He says that his father is not feeling well today.”
  • Direct – She will say to him, you are not kind to me.”
  • Indirect – She will tell me that I am not kind to her.”
  • Direct – I often say to my friends, you are all very dear to me.”
  • Indirect – I often tell my friends that they all are very dear to me.
  • Direct – I say to my friend, “that my mother is so soft n sober.”
  • Indirect – I tell to my friend that my mother is so soft n sober.”
  • Direct – He said, “I have finished the work.”
  • Indirect –He said that he had finished the work. 
  • Direct – He said, “They have been waiting here for several hours.”
  • Indirect -  He said that they have been waiting there for several hours.
  • Direct - I say to my sister whenever I meet her, “I do not want to argue with her because I respect her a lot.”
  • Indirect – I tell my sister whenever I meet her that I don’t want to argue with you because I respect you a lot.
  • Direct - John will say to his servant, “you are the greatest dunce that I have ever seen in my life."
  • Indirect – John will tell his servant that he is the greatest dunce he has ever seen in his life.
  • Direct - Ram will go America to ask his aunty, “Are you helping me to find a job for me?”
  • Indirect – Ram will go to America to ask his aunty whether she is helping to find a job for him.


If the reporting verb is in past tense than we can do some changes in this way .like 

Change present indefinite in past indefinite like 
  • Direct – He said, “I am at home.”
  • Indirect – he said that he was at home.”

Present continuous in past continuous 
  • Direct - “he said my sister is cooking.”
  • Indirect – he said that his sister was cooking 

Present perfect in past perfect 
  • Direct - He said, “I have won the competition.”
  • Indirect – he said that he had won in the competition.

Present perfect continues in to past perfect continues 
  • Direct - Sita said, “I have been learning English since June.”
  • Indirect – Sita said she had been learning English since June.

Past continues in past perfect continues 
  • Direct - He said, “My mother was teaching in this school.”
  • Indirect- he said that his mother had been working in this school.

(Note) there will be no change in past perfect or past perfect continues tense  like 
  • Direct – he said, “He had finished his work long ago.”
  • Indirect – he said that he had finished his work long ago.

  • Direct - she said, “ I had been doing the work for several months.”
  • Indirect – she said that she had been doing the work for several months.

Future tense 

"Will" or "shall" change into "would" or "should"...Like 

  • Direct – He said, “I shall definitely help him.”
  • Indirect -  He said that he would definite help him.
  • Direct – He said, “she will go to the.”
  • Indirect – He said that she would go to the market.

"May" is changed into "might" and "can" into "could"
  • Direct – he said, “I can do this work.”
  • Indirect – he said that he could do that work.

  • Direct – the mother said, “She may be allowed to go.”
  • Indirect – the mother said that she might be allowed to go.

There will be no change in "must" 
  • Direct - She said, “I must do it once”
  • Indirect – she said that she must do it once.

If there is any universal truth in the reported speech that tell about any habitual action there will be no change in reported verb …like 
  • Direct – the teacher said in the class, “the sun rises in the east.”
  • Indirect- the teacher said in the class that the sun rises in the east.
  • Direct – he told him, “man lives by bread.”
  • Indirect – he told that man lives by bread.

          

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