Change Direct to Indirect narration

By Learn English - Saturday, 31 August 2013 No Comments


There are always two ways to convey massage one to another person that is called direct or indirect speech
Example – Suppose your mother tell you, “I will gift you a new car on your birthday.” You go to school and want to tell your friend that what your mother said
there are two ways to tell...
  • Direct –My mother said “I will gift you a new car on your birthday.”
  • Indirect –My mother said that she would give me a new car on my birthday.
In “direct speech” we narrate the original words of a speaker, and are enclosed in quotation marks , While in “indirect speech” we made some changes in original words because those word related to past and when we change its tense, will change according the person, and pronoun accordingly .

indirect speech is not enclosed in quotation mark like direct speech , indirect speech is also called reported speech

  •  Reported speech – the first part of sentence ( he says, he said, she said , she says)before the sentence are called reported verb
  • Reporting Speech –The part that is written in out of the inverted commas is called reporting speech like (she says, she said)and the verb that is used is called reported verb .

Reported speech ; the part that is enclosed in inverted commas is called reported speech and the verb that is used in that is called reported verb.
Some rules of indirect speech
Reported speech is note enclosed in inverted commas

Use of “that” - the word “that “is used as conjunction between the reported verb or reported speech
Pronoun is also changed according to person
Change in time- Time is also change according to certain rules like
  • now to then
  • today to that day
  • tomorrow to next day
  • yesterday to previous day
Example –
 Direct Speech - She said “Today I am excited.”
Indirect speech -
  She said that she was exited that day.

Rules To change Direct to Indirect narration

It can be divided in four group… like
  • Rules of change Person
  • rules of change in tenses
  • Rules of change of person
  • miscellaneous change
Rules Of connectives

Direct speech is divided in two parts “reporting speech” or “reported speech”   to joints these two parts we use connectives “that “as a conjunction… like
  • direct – She said “I am going school.”
  • Indirect - She said that she is going home.
Interrogative sentence – if there is a interrogative sentence in reported speech, in that terms we join these two sentence like this
If there is interrogative adverb (where, what, when, how, why how) or interrogative pronoun (whose, who, what, which) come then we don’t use any connective like that, we use that it would be a major mistake.
We connect this..Like
  • Direct: He said “what are you doing?”
  • Indirect : HE asked what I was eating.
Wrong expression (Not he asked me that what I was eating)
  • Direct: he said “who is you father?”
  •  Indirect; he asked me who my father was.
If reported speech is started with “auxiliary verb” to change that in indirect speech we use “whether” or “if” in the place of “that “like
  • Direct: He asked “is she a dancer?”
  • Indirect: He asked me whether she was a dancer. (Not -that weather or ir she was dancer.)
  • Direct   - I said, “Do you smoke?”
  • Indirect - I asked whether (or if) you smoked.
Imperative sentence if there is a imperative sentence (request or command)than we don’t use ant connective “that”, “whether”, or “if” but we change the verb in “infinitive” like
  • Direct -  HE said “please give me a red pen.”
  • Indirect - He requested to give him a red pen.
  • Direct - He said to lady “close the door.”
  • Indirect -  he asked the lady to close the door.
Exclamatory sentence if there are exclamatory sentence (surprise, fear, wish) then we change this exclamatory in assertive sentence
and we use that to join them like
  • Direct - he said “may you live long.”
  • Indirect -  he wished that you may live long.
  • Direct -  she said “what a terrible scene.”
  • Indirect -  She observed that it a terrible scene.

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