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How to make noun forms

By Learn English - Thursday, 21 March 2013 No Comments
How to make Masculine to feminine Noun

This is very tough to use exact noun forms at the exact place, Some time we face lots of difficulties to make its Gender, Number or possessive case. here are some formulas to  solve these kind of problems.

Masculine noun to feminine noun by adding "ess"after the word,
Examples-

  • Actor-Actress
  • Benefactor –Benefactress
  • Conductor-Conductress 
  • Founder-Founders
  • Instructor-Instructress
  • Songster-Songstress
  • Waiter-Waitress 
  • Master- Mistress 
  • Murderer-Murderess
when we make  feminine noun the last vowel of word is removed -

  • Hero-Heroine,
  • Executor-Executrix
  • Bull-calf – Cow-calf, Cock –Sparrow—Hen-Sparrow, 
  • He-got --- She-got, 
  • He-bear—She-bear
  • Man-servant—Maid-Servant, 
  • Grandfather—grandmother, 
  • Great-uncle—Great-aunt
  • Landlord-Landlady, 
  • Milkman—Milkmaid, 
  • Washer man—washerwomen
Some feminine are completely different -Like
  • Bachelor-Maid
  •  Boy- Girl
  • Brother- Sister
  • Bull- cow
  • Cock-Hen
  • Dog-Bitch
  • Father—mother
  • Gentleman – lady
  • Horse—Mare,
  • Husband—Wife
  • Nephew—Niece
  • Son—Daughter
  • Uncle—Aunt
We add  “s” to make some noun plural to Singular number. like
  • Boy—Boys
  • Girl—Girls
  • Pen—pens
  • Table—tables
  • House—Houses
  • Book—Books
The words that have “S”, “Sh”, “CH” we use  “es” to make them plural
  • Class—Classes,
  • Kiss—kisses
  • Dish-Dishes
  • Match—matches
  • Watch—Watches
  • Box—Boxes
Use “es” with the noun that has “o” in the end. Like
  • Buffalo—Buffaloes
  • Potato—Potatoes 
  • Hero—Heroes
  • Echo—Echoes 
  • Zero—Zeroes
  • Mango—Mangoes
  • Mosquito—mosquitoes
Exceptions,
  • Canto—Cantos
  • Piano—Pianos
  • Dynamo—Dynamos
  • Solo—Solos
  • Photo—Photos
  • Ratio—Ratios
Some Noun that have “oo”, “io”, “eo”, “ yo” we add only “s” in the end of those words. Like
  • Bamboo—bamboos
  • Curio—Curios
  • Cameo—Cameos
  • Portfolio—Portfolios
  • Stereo—Stereos
If there is a consonant before “y” use “ies” and remove “y” . Like
  • Baby—Babies 
  • Army—Armies
  • Lady—Ladies 
  • Story—Stories
  • City—Cities 
  • Pony—Ponies
  • Duty—Duties
  • Fly—Flies
Add only (s) if there is a vowel “ay”, “ey” “oy” before “ y”. Like
  • Day—days 
  • Play—plays 
  • Key—Keys
  • Boy—Boys
Add “ves” if noun has “f” “ fe” at the end of word,  last latter is removed “f” , “fe” and add “ves”
  • Knife- Knifes  
  •  Life-lives
  • Wife-Wives
  • Calf-Calves
  • Half-Halves
  • Leaf-Leaves
  • Shelf-Shelves
  • Thief-Thieve
Exceptions:
  • Belief-Beliefs
  • Chief-Chiefs 
  • Dwarf-Dwarfs 
  • Grief-Griefs
  • Brief-Briefs
  • Proof-Proofs
  • Roof-Roofs
  • Safe-Safes
  •  Scarf-Scarfs
To make plural of these Nouns we change the  middle vowels . like
  • Man-Men
  • Woman-Women
  • Foot-Feet
  • Tooth-Teeth 
  • Mouse-Mice
  • Louse-Lice
  • Goose-Geese
  • Dormouse-Dormice
To make plural of these noun we use “en” “ne”
  • Child-Children, 
  • Ox-Oxen. 
  • Cow-Kine.  
  • Brother-brethren (also cows n brothers)
Some Nouns are same in singular and plural form –
  • Public
  • Police
  • Innings
  • gross
  • Yoke
  • Brace 
  • Sheep
  • Deer
  • Fish 
  • Swine
  •  Hair 
  •  Means
  • Kilograms
  • Species
  • Series
  • Thousand
  • Pound 
  • Score
  • Hundred
  • Dozen
Use “s” to make compound noun Plural. Like
Father -in-law : Fathers-in-law
Daughter-in-law :  Daughters-in-law
Son-in-law : Sons-in-law
Commander-in-chief : Commanders-in-chief
 Passer-by : passers-by
Step-son : Steps-Sons

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